Purim: To Drink or Not to Drink?

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Dear Rabbi Simon,

I am disappointed in not being able to attend the “Murder at the Purim Feast” talk at Kesher this week, on the mitzvah of drinking on Purim. Can you please tell me in brief what you had to say specifically about how and how much drinking is allowed/recommended/required?
Thank you in advance

Mordechai

Dear Mordechai,

The Talmud (Meg. 7b) declares, “one is obligated to drink [wine or other intoxicating beverages] until he cannot distinguish between Blessed-is-Mordechai and Cursed-is-Haman.”  Many commentators, including the Code of Jewish Law itself (SA,OH 695), take this instruction at face value.  Indeed, throughout the ages there have been innumerable Jews – rabbis, scholars and saints among them – who have done exactly that.

Nevertheless, many authorities maintain that there is no such obligation, offering a range of different interpretations.  Among them:
The Talmud itself renounces the simplistic statement above (in view of a remarkable story related there).  This is the view of R. Menachem Meiri (13th c. Provence)
The level of inebriation described is a maximum not to be exceeded, not a minimum to be achieved.
One should merely drink a small amount of wine, or more wine than he is accustomed to, and thereby fall asleep.  When sleeping, he can surely not distinguish between Mordechai and Haman (Rama, 16thcKrakow and others, followed by Mishneh Berurah)
The reference is to the numerical value (gematria) of the two Hebrew phrases mentioned above. Remarkably, these are identical (502).  If you cannot calculate, mentally, the arithmetic of those Hebrew words, you are sufficiently intoxicated. (Some of us may be there already.)  This interpretation is found in the halakhic commentary Magen Avraham (17th c Poland).

Possibly my favorite is this: Drink until you cannot make up your mind if the greater miracle is the downfall of the wicked, or the elevation and survival of the righteous.  Again, this thought-provoking question requires mental acuity to contemplate.
According to all views, however, drunkenness is not obligatory.  It may or may not be praiseworthy, depending on one’s motivation in drinking in the first place and, perhaps even more important,thebehaviour and consequences which ensue as a result.  In fact, in recent years the problem of alcohol abuse and addiction within the Orthodox Jewish community, particularly among young people, has prompted some rabbis (and therapists) to discourage drinking on Purim altogether.  See here: https://www.ou.org/holidays/purim/message-rabbi-abraham-j-twerski-m-d/
While I am personally reluctant to go that far (what’s next, no-carb Pesach? Low-cholesterol Hanukkah? Citrus-free Sukkot?), “responsible drinking” is a must!
Happy Purim and drink up!

Rabbi Rashi Simon

Questions & Answers
this week

Questions and Answers

Ask the Rabbi: Quinoa on Pesach
Dear Rabbi Simon,
Where do you stand on quinoa (and the kitniyot ban) for Pesach?
Many thanks,
Tzippy
***
Dear Tzippy,
In line with other American authorities, I am in favour of quinoa. Although I reject completely the voices (mostly from Israel) seeking to abolish the ban on kitniyot entirely, IMO we do not need to include in the prohibition pseudo-grains that were unknown in the Old World until modern times. Best to buy with a Pesach hechsher though, to be free of any possible wheat contamination.
Rabbi Rashi Simon
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